Are Net-Zero Energy Houses on the Horizon?
Builders are testing out the best ways to increase energy efficiency without upping costs for consumers
With a steamy summer in full swing and colder temperatures on the horizon, prospective home buyers are paying closer attention to energy efficiency, especially when it comes to the bottom line on home purchases. Mortgage rates and a home's sale price comprise a big chunk of the price of homeownership, but experts say maintenance and energy costs can sneak up on consumers, too, adding hundreds of dollars to their housing budgets each year.
With more energy-conscious consumers and changing building codes in mind, an increasing number of builders are integrating more energy-efficient designs into new constructions. They're going beyond including Energy Star-rated appliances and using better sealing technologies, smarter floorplans, and small but important structural modifications. "In the past, given a choice, frankly, many customers would have rather paid for upgraded amenities than energy efficiency," says
"We're finding more and more buyers who are passionate about [being] green and are willing to spend time and effort educating themselves," he says. "When people are shopping for a car, some put a lot of consideration into miles per gallon. When you're buying a new home, you should consider what it's going to cost to run the thing."
To see just how energy-efficient builders could be in constructing homes, the
Although the model home is built, Lee says it's still a work in progress. Sensors throughout the home collect data about the home's temperature, humidity, and water and electricity usage, and send it to the NAHB research center for analysis. Analysts then study the data and come up with modification suggestions to further increase energy efficiency. "We are really trying to figure out best practices and solutions that are the most cost-effective, taking into account the materials and installation costs," says
"Ultimately, from the consumer standpoint, you're looking at a combination of utility bills and your mortgage," Wood says. "It may cost a little more upfront, but ultimately you're saving enough on your utility bills that your cash flow is even better."
One of the more visible modifications builders are beginning to make, including Camberley, is simply reducing the size of the homes they build -- Camberley's model is 2,600 square feet -- and favoring more efficient and even unconventional layouts. According to the NAHB, 9 out of 10 builders expect to build smaller, lower-priced homes in the coming years, and many new homes forgo a formal dining room for a larger great room, or use a den as a home office.
"We're reducing the footprint and being more creative with the space," Lee says. "We're taking advantage of every space that we can, so that while the home is smaller, it doesn't feel small."
An open floor plan helps circulate air more freely throughout the home, helping prevent hot and cold pockets, while details such as low-flow faucets, compact fluorescent lighting (
Beneath the veneer of unassuming eco-friendly attributes, today's most energy-efficient homes boast a number of sophisticated technologies designed to make the bones of a house durable and energy-efficient. Instead of the typical 2-by-4 construction, Camberley's
"The heating and cooling systems can do what they're supposed to do then," Lee says. "You're not heating or cooling the outside anymore."
There's still a lot of work to do to engineer net-zero energy houses that are practical in the real world, experts say, but programs like
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